FC Bibliography

A Bibliography of Written and Video Material about Facilitated Communication Training

This is a short list of articles, books and DVDs that contain positive (or neutral) information about the use of communication aids with facilitation.

Annotations on many of the items included can be found on the Syracuse University Institute of Communication and Inclusion website, along with links to most of the videos mentioned (and people who would like to see the other side can find a list of negative articles on the same website).

The list does not include the scores of books by people who started to usecommunication aids with facilitation or their parents. Some are purely autobiographical and some include creative writing. If you'd like a list of these, please email admin@annemcdonaldcentre.org.au.

Rosemary Crossley, A.M., Ph.D. August 2011


  • Allen, B., & Allen, S., 1996, Can the Scientific Method Be Applied to Human Interaction? American Psychologist, 21, 986‐8
  • Attwood, T. 1992, Movement Disorders and Autism; A Rationale for the Use of Facilitated Communication, Communication, 26, 3,27‐33
  • Attwood, T., & Remington‐Gurney, J., 1992, Assessment of literacy skill using facilitated communication, in Van Kraayenoord, C., (Ed), A survey of adult literacy provision for people with intellectual disabilities, Schonell Special Education Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane
  • Bernadi, L, & Tuzzi, A., 2011, Analysing written communication in AAC contexts: a statistical perspective, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 27, 3, 183-94
  • Beck, A., & Pirovano, C., 1996, Facilitated Communicators' Performance on a Task of Receptive Language, Journal of Autism & Developmental Disabilities, 26, 5, 497‐512
  • Biklen, D., 1993, Communication Unbound, Teachers College Press, Columbia University, New York
  • Biklen, D., & Duchan, J., 1994, "I am intelligent": The Social Construction of Mental Retardation, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 19, 3, 173‐184
  • Biklen, D., Saha, N., & Kliewer, C., 1995, How Teachers Confirm Authorship Of Facilitated Communication, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 20, 45‐56.
  • Biklen, D., & Cardinal, D. (eds), 1997, Contested Words, Contested Science, Teachers College Press, Columbia University, New York:
  • Biklen, D., 2005, Autism and the Myth of the Person Alone, New York University Press, New York
  • Biklen, D. & Burke, J., 2006, Presuming Competence, Equity and Excellence in Education, 39: 166‐175.
  • Bjarnason, D., 1992, Blöndun; Má laera af andfoetlingum?, Proskahjálp, 2, 14, 17‐25
  • Borthwick, C. & Crossley, R., 1999, Language and Retardation, Psycholoquy, www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/cgi/psyc/newpsy?10.038, (On‐line refereed journal sponsored by the American Psychological Association ‐ APA),
  • Broderick, A. and Kasa‐Hendrickson, C., 2001, "SAY JUST ONE WORD AT FIRST": The Emergence of Reliable Speech in a Student Labeled With Autism, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 26(1), 13‐24.
  • Bundschuh,K & Basler‐Eggen, A , 2000, Abschlussbericht zur Studie, Getutzte Kommunication bei menschen mit scheern Kommunicationsstorwigen, Munich: Bayerischhes Staatsministerium fur Arbeit und Sozialordunung, Familie,
  • Fauen und Gesundheit [English translation ‐ Facilitated Communication for Persons With Severe Communication Problems]
  • Cardinal, D., Hanson, D., & Wakeham, J., 1996, An investigation of authorship in facilitated communication, Mental Retardation 34, 231‐242. [The largest validation study ever, which involved 43 teenagers-- and a 74% success rate.]
  • Crossley, R. & McDonald, A., 1980, Annie’s Coming Out, Penguin Books, Melbourne, Australia
  • Crossley, R., 1992, Getting the words out: Case Studies in Facilitated Communication Training, Topics in Language Disorders, August 12, 4, 46
  • Crossley, R., 1997, Sarah: A Case Study in Facilitated Communication Training, European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1997, 32, 1, 61
  • Crossley, R., 1997, Speechless, E P Dutton, New York.
  • Dwyer, J. 1996, Access to Justice for People with Severe Communication Impairment, Australian Journal of Administrative Law, 3, 2, 73‐119
  • Emerson, A, Grayson A, Griffiths A., 2001, Can’t or Won’t. Evidence relating to authorship in facilitated communication, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36, 98‐103.
  • Ferguson, D., & Horner, R., 1994, Negotiating the facilitated communication maze, Mental Retardation, 32, 4, 305‐307
  • Goode, G., 1994, Defining facilitated communication in and out of existence: the role of science in the facilitated communication controversy, Mental Retardation, 32, 4, 307‐311
  • Grant,C., Grayson, A and Boucher, J. 2001, Using Tests of False Belief with Children with Autism: How valid and reliable are they? Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice: 5, 135‐145
  • Grayson, A., Emerson, A., Howard‐Jones, P., & O’Neil, L., 2011, Hidden communicative competence: Case study evidence using eye‐tracking and video analysis, Autism, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1362361310393260.
  • IDRP — Intellectual Disability Review Panel, 1989, Report to the Director General on the reliability and validity of assisted communication, Office of Intellectual Disability Services, Melbourne, Australia [The IDRP tested 6 children, 4 of whom validated their ability to spell with facilitation.]
  • Janzen‐Wilde, M.L., Duchan, J.F., & Higginbotham, D.J., 1995, Successful use of facilitated communication with an oral child, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 658‐676
  • Kasa‐Hendrickson, C., Broderick, A & Hanson, D., 2009, Sorting out Speech: Understanding Multiple Methods of Communication for Persons with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, Journal of Developmental Processes, 4(2), 116‐133
  • Kliewer,C., Biklen, D., & Kasa‐Hendrickson C., 2006, Who May Be Literate? Disability and Resistance to the Cultural Denial of Competence, American Educational Research Journal, 43, (2), 163–192
  • Marcus, E. and Shevin, M., 1997, Sorting it out under fire: Our journey, in D. Biklen and D. Cardinal (Eds.) Contested words, contested science: Unraveling the facilitated communication controversy. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Mirenda, P., 2008, A Back Door Approach to Autism and AAC, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 24 (3), 220–234
  • Morley, B., 1996, The Apparently Intellectually Handicapped, in Burrows, G., (ed.), Fifth Greek/Australian International Legal and Medical Conference, Crete 1995, Greek/Australian Legal and Medical Conference Ltd. Melbourne [“The irrefutable fact is that seven of the thirteen patients whom I have examined ... . have eventually become independent of their facilitator.”]
  • Myles, B., Quinn, C., & Simpson, R., 1994, Student Demonstration of skill acquisition through facilitated communication, Focus on Autistic Behavior, 9, 7‐10
  • Niemi,J & Karna‐Lin, E., 2002, Grammar and lexicon in Facilitated Communication: A linguistic authorship analysis of a Finnish case, Mental Retardation, 40, 347‐357
  • Ogletree, B., Hamtil, A., Solberg, L., & Scoby‐Schmelzle, S., 1993, Facilitated Communication; illustration of a naturalistic validation method, Focus on Autistic Behavior, 8, 110
  • Olney, M., 1995, Reading Between the Lines; A Case Study on Facilitated Communication, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicap, 20, 1, 57‐65
  • Queensland Steering Committee on Facilitated Communication Training, 1992 and 1996, Reports on Facilitator Training and Naturalistic Validation, Queensland Department of Family Services (now known as Queensland Department of Communities)
  • Rubin, S., Biklen, D., Kasa‐Hendrickson, C., Kluth, P., Cardinal, D. N., & Broderick, A., 2001, Independence, participation, and the meaning of intellectual ability, Disability and Society, 16, 425–429.
  • Sabin, L., & Donellan, A., 1993, An Ethnographic Study of the Process of Facilitated Communication, Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18, 3, 200‐211
  • Sheehan, C. & Matuozzi, R. 1996, Investigation of the validity of facilitated communication, Mental Retardation, 34, 94‐107.
  • Simon, E., Toll, D., & Whitehair, P., 1994, A naturalistic approach to the validation of facilitated communication, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 5, 647‐657
  • Simpson, R., & Myles, B., 1995, Effectiveness of Facilitated Communication with Children and Youth with Autism, Journal of Special Education, 28, 4, 242‐249
  • Tehan, G. & Senior, G., 2006, Final Report on Facilitated Communication Project, for Disability Services Queensland, University of Southern Queensland
  • Tuzzi, A., Cemin, M., and Castagna, M., 2004, “Moved deeply I am.” Autistic language in texts produced with FC, Journées Internationals d’Analyse Statistique des Données Textuelles, 7, pp. 1–9.
  • Tuzzi, A., 2009, Grammar and Lexicon in Individuals with Autism: a quantitative analysis of a large Italian corpus, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 373‐385.
  • Weiss, M., Wagner, S., & Bauman, M., 1996, A case of validated facilitated communication, Mental Retardation , 34, 220‐230.
  • Zanobini, M., and Scopesi, A., 2001, La comunicazione facilitata in un bambino autistico, Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, 5, pp. 395‐421

Articles which are relevant to the use of facilitation with people with ASD:

  • Dziuk M.A. et al., 2007, Dyspraxia in Autism: association with motor, social and communicative deficits, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49: 734‐739
  • Dawson et al., 2007, The Level and Nature of Autistic Intelligence, Research Report, Psychological Science, 18(8), 657‐661
  • Ashwin et al., 2009, Eagle‐Eyed Visual Acuity: An Experimental Investigation of Enhanced Perception In Autism, Biological Psychiatry 65;17‐ 21.

Some DVDs about people who learnt to communicate by spelling with facilitation.

  • Film Australia, 1984, Annie’s Coming Out (2010 DVD available from Umbrella Entertainment)
  • Kasa‐Hendrickson, C., Broderick, A.A., & Biklen, D. (Producers), & Gambell, J. (Director), 2002, Inside the Edge: A Journey to Using Speech through Typing (Jamie Burke typing and talking about his emerging speech and independence), The Institute on Communication and Inclusion, Syracuse University
  • Wurzburg, G. (Producer and Director), 2004, Autism is a World (Oscar‐nominated documentary about Sue Rubin’s journey to independence), CNN Productions and State of the Art, Inc.
  • Karna‐Lin, E. & Biklen, D. (Producers), 2008, Happy to Know New Things (Henna Laukainen typing and speaking in Finnish – subtitled), The Institute on Communication and Inclusion, Syracuse University
  • DeClouette, N. & Biklen, D. (Producers), 2009, Here We Are World – A Conversation Between Friends (shows five adults with ASD who have developed varying levels of independence in typing and speech), The Institute on Communication and Inclusion, Syracuse University
  • New Ground Publishing Company (Producers), 2010, Kayla’s Voice: Empowering People with Autism (Available on Amazon)
  • Suzuki, M. & Biklen, D. (Producers), 2010, I Write, so I Am Alive (Naoki Higashida spelling and typing independently in Japanese – subtitled), The Institute on Communication and Inclusion, Syracuse University
  • Wurzburg, G. (Producer and Director), 2011, Wretches and Jabberers – Stories from the Road (feature‐length documentary about people with ASD who started to type with facilitation: chosen by the Autism Society of America as the flagship for Autism Week 2011), State of the Art, Inc.

Here We Are World and other videos of people who learnt to communicate by typing with facilitation but can now type without physical support, can be viewed on the Institute on Communication and Inclusion website.

Anne McDonald Centre. 538 Dandenong Road, Caulfield 3162 Victoria, Australia Ph: 03 9509 6324, Fax: 03 9509 6321
© All Rights Reserved Download BrowseAloud Designed and hosted by Infoxchange Australia